Urea is also named as the carbamide, this is a chemical compound generally available in the metabolism of nitrogen in animals. It is largely used as the fertilizer or raw material to produce tough chemical substances. The chemical formula for the compound could be given as the
+CO(NH2)2 and its molecular weight is 60.06 g mol-1.
The molecule is formed by combining two amide groups that are bind together with central carboxyl carbon with a double bond. Mostly, the molecule has a planar geometry allows free rotation of bonds. The chemical structure of the compound could be given as below.
This molecule is generally available in final products of proteins of metabolism of humans and animals. Its main existence can be felt in the urine of humans that is formed through the urea cycle. It was first discovered by the Dutch chemist in 1727 and primarily synthesized in laboratories by German chemist Friedrich Wohler.
Urea can be prepared through several processes. One of the best techniques is mixing ammonia, carbon monoxide, and sulfur together in Methanol. This reaction generally takes place in two steps. The first step involves the formation of the amide group and the second step will result in the final product. It is generally prepared from liquid ammonia and liquid
CO2 under high temperature and pressure.
2NH3+ CO2 ⇌ H2N-COONH4
H2N-COONH4 ⇌ (NH2)2CO + H2O
Looking at the physical properties, Urea is a white colorless crystalline solid whose density is 1.335 g mL-1. It is soluble in water, ethanol, or methanol but it cannot be dissolved in ether, benzene or chloroform.