Modern Periodic Table – Elements Names, Symbols, Atomic Mass & Number

What is the Periodic Table?

The other name for Periodic Table is Mendeleev’s Table that contains all chemical elements that exist on Earth. The table was proposed in the year 1869 where elements were arranged based on their properties. Although many more elements were in existence prior to that as well, it was the most organized form for scientists where new elements are added as soon as they are discovered.

The structure of the table is quite significant that holds 117 chemical elements in a very distinct order based on their chemical properties. Out of all, 94 elements are given by nature and 24 has been made synthetically by scientists. You can quickly distinguish between metals and non-metals by looking at the table. Metals are placed on the left-hand side and non-metals are placed at the right-hand side.

Further, atoms are arranged based on their increasing atomic numbers in rows and columns. There is a unique symbol for each chemical element and their properties are also different. Based on the properties, the chemical elements are divided into periods, blocks, and groups. Groups are arranged in the vertical rows and columns are arranged in the horizontal rows. And there are groups in the periodic table like – s-block, p-block, d-block, and the f-block.

The Periodic table of elements

The location of the element within a periodic table is highly important based on properties of chemical elements in rows, columns, or blocks. This is easy to predict the properties of an element based on its location. However, trends will differ in the periodic table once you move from the vertical direction to the horizontal along the table.

The trends of groups can be explained by common electronic configurations in their valence cells. They are usually explained on the basis of electronegativity, ionization energy or the atomic radii etc. For each chemical element, there is proton, electrons, and neutrons too.

When moving from left to the right, the atomic radii would decrease and the ionization energy tends to increase. At the same time, when moving from left to the right, the electronic affinity and electronegativity will increase.

Atomic NoAtomic MassChemical Element NameSymbolDiscovery (Year)Group
11.0079HydrogenH17761
24.0026HeliumHe189518
36.941LithiumLi18171
49.0122BerylliumBe17972
510.811BoronB180813
612.0107CarbonCAncient14
714.0067NitrogenN177215
815.9994OxygenO177416
918.9984FluorineF188617
1020.1797NeonNe189818
1122.9897SodiumNa18071
1224.305MagnesiumMg17552
1326.9815AluminumAl182513
1428.0855SiliconSi182414
1530.9738PhosphorusP166915
1632.065SulfurSAncient16
1735.453ChlorineCl177417
1839.948ArgonAr189418
1939.0983PotassiumK18071
2040.078CalciumCa18082
2144.9559ScandiumSc18793
2247.867TitaniumTi17914
2350.9415VanadiumV18305
2451.9961ChromiumCr17976
2554.938ManganeseMn17747
2655.845IronFeAncient8
2758.9332CobaltCo17359
2858.6934NickelNi175110
2963.546CopperCuAncient11
3065.39ZincZnAncient12
3169.723GalliumGa187513
3272.64GermaniumGe188614
3374.9216ArsenicAsAncient15
3478.96SeleniumSe181716
3579.904BromineBr182617
3683.8KryptonKr189818
3785.4678RubidiumRb18611
3887.62StrontiumSr17902
3988.9059YttriumY17943
4091.224ZirconiumZr17894
4192.9064NiobiumNb18015
4295.94MolybdenumMo17816
4398TechnetiumTc19377
44101.07RutheniumRu18448
45102.9055RhodiumRh18039
46106.42PalladiumPd180310
47107.8682SilverAgAncient11
48112.411CadmiumCd181712
49114.818IndiumIn186313
50118.71TinSnAncient14
51121.76AntimonySbAncient15
52127.6TelluriumTe178316
53126.9045IodineIn181117
54131.293XenonXe189818
55132.9055CesiumCs18601
56137.327BariumBa18082
57138.9055LanthanumLa18393
58140.116CeriumCe1803101
59140.9077PraseodymiumPr1885101
60144.24NeodymiumNd1885101
61145PromethiumPm1945101
62150.36SamariumSm1879101
63151.964EuropiumEu1901101
64157.25GadoliniumGd1880101
65158.9253TerbiumTb1843101
66162.5DysprosiumDy1886101
67164.9303HolmiumHo1867101
68167.259ErbiumEr1842101
69168.9342ThuliumTm1879101
70173.04YtterbiumYb1878101
71174.967LutetiumLu1907101
72178.49HafniumHf19234
73180.9479TantalumTa18025
74183.84TungstenW17836
75186.207RheniumRe19257
76190.23OsmiumOs18038
77196.9665IridiumIrAncient11
78192.217PlatinumPt18039
79195.078GoldAu173510
80200.59MercuryHgAncient12
81204.3833ThalliumTl186113
82207.2LeadPbAncient14
83208.9804BismuthBiAncient15
84209PoloniumPo189816
85210AstatineAt194017
86222RadonRn190018
87223FranciumFr19391
88226RadiumRa18982
89227ActiniumAc18993
90232.0381ThoriumTh1829102
91231.0359ProtactiniumPa1913102
92238.0289UraniumU1789102
93237NeptuniumNp1940102
94244PlutoniumPu1940102
95243AmericiumAm1944102
96247CuriumCm1944102
97247BerkeliumBk1949102
98251CaliforniumCf1950102
99252EinsteiniumEs1952102
100257FermiumFm1952102
101258MendeleviumMd1955102
102259NobeliumNo1958102
103262LawrenciumLr1961102
104261RutherfordiumRf19644
105262DubniumDb19675
106266SeaborgiumSg19746
107264BohriumBh19817
108277HassiumHs19848
109268MeitneriumMt19829
110261.9DarmstadtiumDs199410
111271.8RoentgeniumRg199411
112285CoperniciumCn199612
113286UnuntriumUut200313
114289FleroviumFl199814
115288UnunpentiumUup201015
116293LivermoriumLv200016
117260.9UnunseptiumUus201017
118294UnunoctiumUuo200618

Modern Periodic Table

In the early times, scientists assumed that properties of a chemical element are the periodic function of their atomic masses. Based on this assumption only, there were placed 63 elements along the vertical columns and horizontal rows of the periodic table. But the proposal was rejected later because it was not able to explain the position of certain elements, rare earth metals or isotopes etc. Later, these defects were removed and put forward the modern periodic table based on the modern periodic law.
Modern Periodic Table
He said that elements are arranged in the periodic table based on their atomic number, not the atomic masses. A tabular arrangement of elements in groups and periods which highlights the regular trends in properties of elements is defined as the periodic table. There are eighteen vertical columns known as groups in the modern periodic table which are arranged from left to right and seven horizontal rows which are known as periods.