Modern Periodic Table – Elements Names, Symbols, Atomic Mass & Number

What is the Periodic Table?

The other name for Periodic Table is Mendeleev’s Table that contains all chemical elements that exist on Earth. The table was proposed in the year 1869 where elements were arranged based on their properties. Although many more elements were in existence prior to that as well, it was the most organized form for scientists where new elements are added as soon as they are discovered.

The structure of the table is quite significant that holds 117 chemical elements in a very distinct order based on their chemical properties. Out of all, 94 elements are given by nature and 24 has been made synthetically by scientists. You can quickly distinguish between metals and non-metals by looking at the table. Metals are placed on the left-hand side and non-metals are placed at the right-hand side.

Further, atoms are arranged based on their increasing atomic numbers in rows and columns. There is a unique symbol for each chemical element and their properties are also different. Based on the properties, the chemical elements are divided into periods, blocks, and groups. Groups are arranged in the vertical rows and columns are arranged in the horizontal rows. And there are groups in the periodic table like – s-block, p-block, d-block, and the f-block.

The Periodic table of elements

The location of the element within a periodic table is highly important based on properties of chemical elements in rows, columns, or blocks. This is easy to predict the properties of an element based on its location. However, trends will differ in the periodic table once you move from the vertical direction to the horizontal along the table.

The trends of groups can be explained by common electronic configurations in their valence cells. They are usually explained on the basis of electronegativity, ionization energy or the atomic radii etc. For each chemical element, there is proton, electrons, and neutrons too.

When moving from left to the right, the atomic radii would decrease and the ionization energy tends to increase. At the same time, when moving from left to the right, the electronic affinity and electronegativity will increase.

Atomic No Atomic Mass Chemical Element Name Symbol Discovery (Year) Group
1 1.0079 Hydrogen H 1776 1
2 4.0026 Helium He 1895 18
3 6.941 Lithium Li 1817 1
4 9.0122 Beryllium Be 1797 2
5 10.811 Boron B 1808 13
6 12.0107 Carbon C Ancient 14
7 14.0067 Nitrogen N 1772 15
8 15.9994 Oxygen O 1774 16
9 18.9984 Fluorine F 1886 17
10 20.1797 Neon Ne 1898 18
11 22.9897 Sodium Na 1807 1
12 24.305 Magnesium Mg 1755 2
13 26.9815 Aluminum Al 1825 13
14 28.0855 Silicon Si 1824 14
15 30.9738 Phosphorus P 1669 15
16 32.065 Sulfur S Ancient 16
17 35.453 Chlorine Cl 1774 17
18 39.948 Argon Ar 1894 18
19 39.0983 Potassium K 1807 1
20 40.078 Calcium Ca 1808 2
21 44.9559 Scandium Sc 1879 3
22 47.867 Titanium Ti 1791 4
23 50.9415 Vanadium V 1830 5
24 51.9961 Chromium Cr 1797 6
25 54.938 Manganese Mn 1774 7
26 55.845 Iron Fe Ancient 8
27 58.9332 Cobalt Co 1735 9
28 58.6934 Nickel Ni 1751 10
29 63.546 Copper Cu Ancient 11
30 65.39 Zinc Zn Ancient 12
31 69.723 Gallium Ga 1875 13
32 72.64 Germanium Ge 1886 14
33 74.9216 Arsenic As Ancient 15
34 78.96 Selenium Se 1817 16
35 79.904 Bromine Br 1826 17
36 83.8 Krypton Kr 1898 18
37 85.4678 Rubidium Rb 1861 1
38 87.62 Strontium Sr 1790 2
39 88.9059 Yttrium Y 1794 3
40 91.224 Zirconium Zr 1789 4
41 92.9064 Niobium Nb 1801 5
42 95.94 Molybdenum Mo 1781 6
43 98 Technetium Tc 1937 7
44 101.07 Ruthenium Ru 1844 8
45 102.9055 Rhodium Rh 1803 9
46 106.42 Palladium Pd 1803 10
47 107.8682 Silver Ag Ancient 11
48 112.411 Cadmium Cd 1817 12
49 114.818 Indium In 1863 13
50 118.71 Tin Sn Ancient 14
51 121.76 Antimony Sb Ancient 15
52 127.6 Tellurium Te 1783 16
53 126.9045 Iodine In 1811 17
54 131.293 Xenon Xe 1898 18
55 132.9055 Cesium Cs 1860 1
56 137.327 Barium Ba 1808 2
57 138.9055 Lanthanum La 1839 3
58 140.116 Cerium Ce 1803 101
59 140.9077 Praseodymium Pr 1885 101
60 144.24 Neodymium Nd 1885 101
61 145 Promethium Pm 1945 101
62 150.36 Samarium Sm 1879 101
63 151.964 Europium Eu 1901 101
64 157.25 Gadolinium Gd 1880 101
65 158.9253 Terbium Tb 1843 101
66 162.5 Dysprosium Dy 1886 101
67 164.9303 Holmium Ho 1867 101
68 167.259 Erbium Er 1842 101
69 168.9342 Thulium Tm 1879 101
70 173.04 Ytterbium Yb 1878 101
71 174.967 Lutetium Lu 1907 101
72 178.49 Hafnium Hf 1923 4
73 180.9479 Tantalum Ta 1802 5
74 183.84 Tungsten W 1783 6
75 186.207 Rhenium Re 1925 7
76 190.23 Osmium Os 1803 8
77 196.9665 Iridium Ir Ancient 11
78 192.217 Platinum Pt 1803 9
79 195.078 Gold Au 1735 10
80 200.59 Mercury Hg Ancient 12
81 204.3833 Thallium Tl 1861 13
82 207.2 Lead Pb Ancient 14
83 208.9804 Bismuth Bi Ancient 15
84 209 Polonium Po 1898 16
85 210 Astatine At 1940 17
86 222 Radon Rn 1900 18
87 223 Francium Fr 1939 1
88 226 Radium Ra 1898 2
89 227 Actinium Ac 1899 3
90 232.0381 Thorium Th 1829 102
91 231.0359 Protactinium Pa 1913 102
92 238.0289 Uranium U 1789 102
93 237 Neptunium Np 1940 102
94 244 Plutonium Pu 1940 102
95 243 Americium Am 1944 102
96 247 Curium Cm 1944 102
97 247 Berkelium Bk 1949 102
98 251 Californium Cf 1950 102
99 252 Einsteinium Es 1952 102
100 257 Fermium Fm 1952 102
101 258 Mendelevium Md 1955 102
102 259 Nobelium No 1958 102
103 262 Lawrencium Lr 1961 102
104 261 Rutherfordium Rf 1964 4
105 262 Dubnium Db 1967 5
106 266 Seaborgium Sg 1974 6
107 264 Bohrium Bh 1981 7
108 277 Hassium Hs 1984 8
109 268 Meitnerium Mt 1982 9
110 261.9 Darmstadtium Ds 1994 10
111 271.8 Roentgenium Rg 1994 11
112 285 Copernicium Cn 1996 12
113 286 Ununtrium Uut 2003 13
114 289 Flerovium Fl 1998 14
115 288 Ununpentium Uup 2010 15
116 293 Livermorium Lv 2000 16
117 260.9 Ununseptium Uus 2010 17
118 294 Ununoctium Uuo 2006 18

Modern Periodic Table

In the early times, scientists assumed that properties of a chemical element are the periodic function of their atomic masses. Based on this assumption only, there were placed 63 elements along the vertical columns and horizontal rows of the periodic table. But the proposal was rejected later because it was not able to explain the position of certain elements, rare earth metals or isotopes etc. Later, these defects were removed and put forward the modern periodic table based on the modern periodic law.
Modern Periodic Table
He said that elements are arranged in the periodic table based on their atomic number, not the atomic masses. A tabular arrangement of elements in groups and periods which highlights the regular trends in properties of elements is defined as the periodic table. There are eighteen vertical columns known as groups in the modern periodic table which are arranged from left to right and seven horizontal rows which are known as periods.


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