What is Ammonia?

This molecule is available in the trigonal pyramidal shape where one nitrogen is attached with three hydrogen atoms. Further, the nitrogen atom had a lone electron pair that successfully makes the ammonia as a base. NH3 is a polar molecule that quickly forms hydrogen bonds and making it high miscible with water.

Ammonia Formula

The presence of NH3 can be felt strongly in the human body and secreted to kidneys to neutralize the excess acid effects. It is available in small quantities inside rainwater, volcanic areas, or atmosphere, etc. The compound is prepared commercially by the Haber-Bosch process and hydrogen atoms and nitrogen atoms will connect together in the presence of a metal catalyst to release the ammonia gas at high temperature or pressure conditions.

Ammonia Formula = \( N_2 + 3H_2 \to 2NH_3 \)

Further, the ammonia is a colorless agent with a sharp and penetrating odor with a melting point of -33.35 degrees Celsius. The freezing point of the compound is -77.7 ° where NH3 gas can be liquified quickly. Let us switch to the chemical properties now, where ammonia is always the weak base and combines with a variety of acids to form ammonium salts in the end.

When ammonia and water combine together, it will result in an exothermic reaction and forming aqueous solution too that is named as the ammonium hydroxide \( NH_4OH \). The major uses of ammonia involve fertilizers, polymers, cleaning agents, or refrigerants, etc. The chemical compound has a pungent smell and it can seriously irritate the nose, eyes, or skin, etc when inhaled in large quantities.