This is one of the most important and useful mineral acids which non-toxic in nature and the other name for chemical substance is the orthophosphoric acid. The chemical formula for the substance could be written as H3PO4 with a molecular weight 97.99 g/mol.
As per the structure of the chemical substance, the central phosphorus atom is connected to the one oxygen atom with a double bond and three hydroxyl group that further releases H+ ions. For the industrial usage, the chemical substance is prepared through a wet process where sulfuric acid is to made react with apatite ahead.
Ca5(PO4)3Cl + 5 H2SO4 + 10 H2O → 3 H3PO4 + 5 CaSO4·2 H2O + HCl
The resulting phosphoric acid is then concentrated to form high-grade phosphoric acid that can be used for commercial grade ahead. This is a crystalline solid substance with a melting point of 42.35° C. if it is used in less concentration form then it becomes transparent and viscous in nature with a density of approx. 1.885 g/mL.
Generally, it is non-toxic and volatile with 85 percent in water. If you would look at the structure then phosphoric acid has three acidic and replaceable hydrogen atoms. It reacts differently with different mineral acids and it could combine with bases as well to form salts by replacing one, two, or three hydrogen atoms.
If the temperature if high then phosphoric acid has the capability to react or combine to form dimers, trimers or polymers etc. Because of its non-toxicity, it can be used for plenty of applications like skin care products, dental products, beverages, food flavors, fertilizers and more.