Ammonium bicarbonate is a basic inorganic compound whose formula is
NH4HCO3 with a molecular weight of 79.056 g/mol approximately. The chemical structure of the substance is shown below where ammonium cation and the bicarbonate anions are connected together.
The natural occurrence of the ammonium bicarbonate compound can be felt in nitrogen compounds along with ammonium salts. It can be prepared by mixing ammonia and the carbon dioxide gas together into aqueous solutions until the ammonium bicarbonate is not formed in the crystal form.
Further, crystals can be separated from the solution by filtration or centrifugation process. To prevent the decomposition of product, you should perform the reaction at cold temperatures.
CO2 + NH3 + H2O → NH4HCO3
The product exists in a white crystalline form with an approximate density of 1.59 g/mL and a melting point of 41.9 °C. The product has a strong unpleasant odor and it can be dissolved in water quickly. This is a mildly alkaline solution and it could not be dissolved in organic solvents. It decomposes quickly at a temperature above 36 degree Celsius into ammonia, water, and the carbon dioxide.
NH4HCO3 → NH3 + CO2 + H2O
The product is mainly used as the baking soda for processing food applications or it could be used in cough syrups too. This is taken as the antacid and used as a fertilizer too. It is used as a reagent in chemical laboratories. In industries, it is used for manufacturing dyes, plastics, fire retardants, ceramics, catalysts, pharmaceuticals, or other products etc.